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The XX= female and XY = male myth. It's not that simple.

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Maybebaby56:
If you have been tracking the recent proliferation in the mass media of articles about transgender persons such as Caitlyn Jenner, then you might have also noticed the mean, hateful, and ignorant comments that are often posted in response. One of the more common responses is that "She is never going to be a he, XX= female and XY = male, and that is that".  Well, no, it's not simple.

There is a very informative website put out by the World Health Organization that is worth reading: http://www.who.int/genomics/gender/en/index1.html.

I will copy and paste the first page here, but I will highly recommend that anyone interested visit the website and read the many pages of useful information with which to combat ignorance about genetics and gender.

Genetic Components of Sex and Gender

Humans are born with 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. The X and Y chromosomes determine a person’s sex. Most women are 46XX and most men are 46XY. Research suggests, however, that in a few births per thousand some individuals will be born with a single sex chromosome (45X or 45Y) (sex monosomies) and some with three or more sex chromosomes (47XXX, 47XYY or 47XXY, etc.) (sex polysomies). In addition, some males are born 46XX due to the translocation of a tiny section of the sex determining region of the Y chromosome. Similarly some females are also born 46XY due to mutations in the Y chromosome. Clearly, there are not only females who are XX and males who are XY, but rather, there is a range of chromosome complements, hormone balances, and phenotypic variations that determine sex.

The biological differences between men and women result from two processes: sex determination and differentiation.(3) The biological process of sex determination controls whether the male or female sexual differentiation pathway will be followed. The process of biological sex differentiation (development of a given sex) involves many genetically regulated, hierarchical developmental steps. More than 95% of the Y chromosome is male-specific (4) and a single copy of the Y chromosome is able to induce testicular differentiation of the embryonic gonad. The Y chromosome acts as a dominant inducer of male phenotype and individuals having four X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (49XXXXY) are phenotypically male. (5) When a Y chromosome is present, early embryonic testes develop around the 10th week of pregnancy. In the absence of both a Y chromosome and the influence of a testis-determining factor (TDF), ovaries develop.

Gender, typically described in terms of masculinity and femininity, is a social construction that varies across different cultures and over time. (6) There are a number of cultures, for example, in which greater gender diversity exists and sex and gender are not always neatly divided along binary lines such as male and female or homosexual and heterosexual. The Berdache in North America, the fa’afafine (Samoan for “the way of a woman”) in the Pacific, and the kathoey in Thailand are all examples of different gender categories that differ from the traditional Western division of people into males and females. Further, among certain North American native communities, gender is seen more in terms of a continuum than categories, with special acknowledgement of “two-spirited” people who encompass both masculine and feminine qualities and characteristics. It is apparent, then, that different cultures have taken different approaches to creating gender distinctions, with more or less recognition of fluidity and complexity of gender.

Marlee:
Good analysis. Nature isn't all that cut n' dry. Unfortunately, some people show us that stupidity is.
So many times I think certain comments left in reply of articles are done just to provoke a fight. I just ignore em. (and hopefully that drives em nuts)

Gene24:
Excellent post. The chromosomers are all graduates of a junior high school biology class and have the most basic understanding. That's why they fail whenever they try to apply it to transgender people. Oftentimes we also hear about how rare it is to be intersex as if that's some kind of defense, when in reality their own argument defeats them because being transgender is more rare than many intersex conditions. Some occur in 1000 births while trans men and women could be as high as 1:100,000

Lady Sarah:
I still have a document from St Mary's Hospital in SanFrancisco that shows me being admitted as " intersex phenotype", when I went in for my orchiectomy. The surgeon made that determination after x-rays and ultrasound, even though my chromosomes are 46XY. My insurance will not pay to make a proper diagnosis.

I know I am not the only one like myself, and there are several variants. One could spend countless hours researching this on the internet, and come out more informed as well as confused at the same time.

For the purposes of transitioning from male to female, most doctors do not want to make that diagnosis, as WPATH will only complicate everything. That part is worse than when it was HBIGDA. In fact, my primary care doctor told me that a proper diagnosis of being intersex could result in my no longer being permitted hormones or surgeries, based on WPATH. Could this really be the intentions of those whom wrote it?

Gene24:

--- Quote from: Lady Sarah on August 12, 2016, 07:39:39 pm ---I still have a document from St Mary's Hospital in SanFrancisco that shows me being admitted as " intersex phenotype", when I went in for my orchiectomy. The surgeon made that determination after x-rays and ultrasound, even though my chromosomes are 46XY. My insurance will not pay to make a proper diagnosis.

I know I am not the only one like myself, and there are several variants. One could spend countless hours researching this on the internet, and come out more informed as well as confused at the same time.

For the purposes of transitioning from male to female, most doctors do not want to make that diagnosis, as WPATH will only complicate everything. That part is worse than when it was HBIGDA. In fact, my primary care doctor told me that a proper diagnosis of being intersex could result in my no longer being permitted hormones or surgeries, based on WPATH. Could this really be the intentions of those whom wrote it?

--- End quote ---

God that sounds so awful Lady Sarah. I'm sorry you're having an insurance nightmare. I honestly hate the WPATH a lot with the way it assumes we're lying until we're diagnosed otherwise. It's also disturbing to hear that you may not be permitted to take hormones and have surgeries if you are diagnosed with that. I just had a karyotype done and was hoping to see something like Klinefelter's or anything else that might help me make sense of why I seemed feminized prior to HRT. Hopefully it's not true that they exempt you.

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