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Effects of Hormones and Hormone Therapy on Breast Tissue in Transgender Patients

Started by LoriDee, June 05, 2024, 11:10:38 PM

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Effects of Hormones and Hormone Therapy on Breast Tissue in Transgender Patients: A Concise Review

Harsh Patel, BS,* Victor Arruarana, MD,* Lucille Yao, MD,* Xiaojiang Cui, PhD,* and Edward Ray, MD*
Published online 2020 Feb 17. doi: 10.1007/s12020-020-02197-5
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Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has become a mainstay medical treatment option for management of gender dysphoria in transgender patients of both biologic sexes. Very little is known about the long-term effects of steroid hormone modulation on breast tissue in this population. Most of the data available on the effects of HRT on breast and reproductive tissues comes from studies of post-menopausal cisgender women. Therapeutic regimens are often provider-dependent and there are no uniform guidelines in place for cancer surveillance in transgender patients.

In this review, we present what forms of hormone therapy and hormone modulation are available to transgender patients, what is known about their effects on male and female breast tissue, and what other endogenous and exogenous factors contribute to the macroscopic and cellular changes observed.

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